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Crohn’s Disease, A Comprehensive Look

Crohn’s disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) characterized by inflammation of the digestive tract. The exact cause of Crohn’s disease is still not entirely understood, but it’s thought to be due to a combination of genetic, environmental, immune system, and microbial factors.

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Photo by Pavel Danilyuk

Background & History of Crohn’s Disease

Crohn’s disease was first described in the early 20th century. In 1932, Dr. Burrill B. Crohn, along with Dr. Leon Ginzburg and Dr. Gordon D. Oppenheimer, published a landmark paper titled “Regional Ileitis” in the Journal of the American Medical Association, which detailed the features of the disease. Though the condition was probably present long before this, it was from this paper that the disease got its most commonly recognized name.

Description & Pathophysiology:

Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory bowel disease that can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to the anus, but it most commonly affects the end of the small intestine (the ileum) and the beginning of the colon.

Unlike ulcerative colitis (another form of IBD that affects only the colon), Crohn’s can impact multiple layers of the walls of the gastrointestinal tract. This deep, transmural inflammation can lead to complications like fistulas, which are abnormal connections between different parts of the intestine or between the intestine and other organs.

Etiology & Risk Factors of Crohn’s Disease

  1. Genetics: There’s a genetic predisposition to Crohn’s disease. Several genes have been linked to increased susceptibility, with NOD2 being the most recognized. Family history plays a role; having a relative with IBD increases the risk.
  2. Environment: Westernized countries see a higher prevalence of Crohn’s disease, suggesting environmental factors such as diet, sanitation, or other unknown elements may be contributing factors. Some theories include the “hygiene hypothesis,” which suggests that reduced exposure to infections in early life might increase the risk of autoimmune conditions.
  3. Immune System: An abnormal immune response is central to the pathology of Crohn’s. Instead of fighting off harmful invaders, the immune system starts attacking the cells of the digestive tract, leading to inflammation.
  4. Microbial Factors: The gut microbiome, the vast community of bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms in the digestive tract, seems to play a role in Crohn’s. Dysbiosis, or an imbalance in the microbiome, has been observed in many patients with the disease. However, whether this is a cause or a consequence of the disease remains a topic of research.
  5. Other Factors: Smoking is known to be a significant risk factor and can exacerbate the disease’s progression. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may also increase the risk or worsen existing Crohn’s.

Symptoms & Complications:

Symptoms can range from mild to severe and can include diarrhea, abdominal pain, fatigue, weight loss, and malnutrition. Because of the nature of the inflammation, complications can arise such as abscesses, fistulas, strictures (narrowing of the intestine), and a higher risk of colon cancer.

Management & Treatment:

Management typically revolves around controlling inflammation, managing symptoms, and preventing complications. This often involves a combination of dietary modifications, medications (like anti-inflammatories, immunosuppressants, or biologics), and, in severe cases, surgery.

While significant progress has been made in understanding and treating Crohn’s disease, it remains a challenging condition with no known cure. Research continues into its causes, new treatments, and potential preventive strategies.

The Relationship Between Crohn’s Disease and Diet

Crohn’s disease, first described by Dr. Burrill B. Crohn in the early 20th century, is a complex inflammatory bowel disease that affects various portions of the gastrointestinal tract. Historically, its cause has remained enigmatic, with researchers believing it stems from a confluence of genetic, environmental, immune, and microbial factors. As Westernized countries show a higher prevalence of Crohn’s disease, questions arise about the role of our modern diets in exacerbating or potentially triggering the disease. Specifically, the consumption of processed foods, seed oils, and sugars has come under scrutiny. There is growing interest in understanding how dietary components can either aggravate or alleviate the symptoms of Crohn’s. This exploration will delve into the potential impacts of these foods and the benefits of adopting a diet rich in natural whole foods, limited sugars, and reduced carbohydrates in the management and symptom relief of Crohn’s disease.

“Navigating Dietary Recommendations for Inflammatory Bowel Disease: From Individual Needs to General Guidelines”.

IBD (Inflammatory Bowel Disease), which encompasses both Crohn’s disease (“Crohn’s” or sometimes colloquially referred to as “Chromes”) and ulcerative colitis, then dietary recommendations can be quite individualized. This is because the nature of these diseases can vary widely among patients in terms of severity, location of inflammation, and personal tolerances.

However, there are general dietary guidelines that can be beneficial for many individuals with IBD:

  1. Low-Residue Diet: During flares, some patients benefit from a low-residue or low-fiber diet. This means limiting foods that add residue to the stool, like raw fruits and vegetables, nuts, seeds, and whole grains.
  2. Stay Hydrated: Dehydration can be a concern, especially during flares. Drink plenty of water, and avoid caffeinated or alcoholic beverages, which can be dehydrating.
  3. Limit Dairy: Some people with IBD become lactose intolerant, so it may be beneficial to limit or avoid dairy or switch to lactose-free options.
  4. Limit Fatty Foods: High-fat foods, especially those high in saturated fats, can be difficult to digest and can exacerbate symptoms in some people.
  5. Consider the Low-FODMAP Diet: FODMAPs are certain types of carbohydrates that can cause digestive symptoms in some people. A low-FODMAP diet might help reduce symptoms. However, this diet is restrictive and should be followed under the guidance of a dietitian.
  6. Avoid Spicy Foods: If spicy foods trigger your symptoms, it’s best to avoid them.
  7. Limit Sugar and Sugar Alcohols: These can contribute to symptoms like diarrhea in some people.
  8. Consider Nutritional Supplements: People with IBD often have vitamin and mineral deficiencies due to reduced food intake, reduced absorption, and loss of nutrients. Common deficiencies include iron, vitamin B12, vitamin D, folic acid, and calcium. It’s crucial to work with a healthcare provider to determine what supplements might be needed.
  9. Regularly Monitor Weight: Weight loss can be a concern for many with IBD. Ensure you’re getting enough calories and protein. If you’re losing weight unintentionally, speak with a dietitian or doctor.
  10. Listen to Your Body: Everyone’s triggers are different. What works for one person might not work for another. Keep a food diary to identify potential food triggers.
  11. Avoid Processed Foods: While not a strict rule, many people with IBD find relief by reducing their intake of heavily processed foods and focusing on whole foods.
  12. Work With a Dietitian: A registered dietitian, especially one experienced in IBD, can help personalize dietary recommendations based on individual needs.

Lastly, while diet can play a role in symptom management, it’s essential to continue medical treatment as recommended by a gastroenterologist. The combination of medical and dietary interventions offers the best chance for managing IBD symptoms and maintaining remission.

Can Natural Methods Help Crohn’s Disease?

Yes, certain natural compounds like curcumin (derived from turmeric) and qing dai (also known as indigo naturalis) have been investigated for their potential benefits in inflammatory bowel disease, including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.

1. Curcumin:

  • Mechanism: Curcumin is known for its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. It has been suggested that curcumin can modulate inflammatory pathways by inhibiting NF-kB, a key regulator of the inflammatory response.
  • Clinical Evidence: Some studies have shown that curcumin supplementation can help reduce symptoms and promote remission in ulcerative colitis when combined with conventional therapies. There’s less research on its effects on Crohn’s disease, but some patients reportedly benefit from its use.
  • Usage: It’s often administered as an adjunct to standard treatments. However, it’s important to note that the bioavailability of curcumin is low, meaning it’s not easily absorbed in the digestive system. Therefore, formulations designed to increase bioavailability (like those combined with piperine) might be more effective.

2. Qing Dai (Indigo Naturalis):

  • Mechanism: The exact mechanism of qing dai in IBD is still being explored, but it’s believed to have anti-inflammatory properties.
  • Clinical Evidence: Some studies, primarily from East Asia, have shown promising results with qing dai in inducing remission in ulcerative colitis. There’s limited research on its effects on Crohn’s disease.
  • Usage: Qing dai can be administered orally or as a topical treatment for those with inflammation near the rectum.


  • While these natural compounds may offer some promise, it’s essential to approach them as complementary therapies rather than replacements for conventional treatments unless guided otherwise by a healthcare professional.
  • Not everyone will respond to these treatments, and some might experience side effects. For example, long-term use of qing dai has been linked to potential liver damage.
  • Always inform your healthcare provider if you’re considering or using any complementary therapies, as there might be interactions with other medications or potential side effects to be aware of.


Natural compounds like curcumin and qing dai may offer some benefits for individuals with IBD, but more rigorous research is needed. It’s always recommended to consult with a healthcare professional when considering the integration of these compounds into a treatment regimen.

Relationship Between Crohn’s Disease and Diet:

The exact cause of Crohn’s disease is still not entirely understood, but it’s thought to be due to a combination of genetic, environmental, immune system, and microbial factors.

Relationship Between Crohn’s Disease and Diet:

  1. Processed Foods: Highly processed foods often contain additives, emulsifiers, and other chemicals that could potentially influence gut bacteria or increase gut permeability, both of which have been suggested as potential mechanisms for exacerbating IBD. In mouse models, certain emulsifiers have been shown to alter the gut microbiota and increase the risk of colitis, though such studies in humans are still limited.
  2. Seed Oils: These refer to vegetable oils like soybean, corn, and sunflower oils. These oils are high in omega-6 fatty acids. An imbalance of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids in the diet has been suggested to contribute to inflammation. However, it’s worth noting that not all research supports the idea that these oils directly exacerbate IBD, and more studies are needed.
  3. Sugar: High sugar intake can lead to obesity, insulin resistance, and altered gut microbiota – all of which can potentially contribute to or exacerbate inflammation. Excess sugar can also increase gut permeability and result in dysbiosis (imbalance in the gut bacteria), potentially playing a role in IBD.

Potential Benefits of Natural Whole Foods, Low Sugar, and Low Carb Diets:

  1. Gut Microbiota: A whole-foods-based diet can support a healthy gut microbiota. Beneficial gut bacteria thrive on fibers, polyphenols, and other compounds that are rich in natural foods but absent in processed ones. A balanced microbiota can reduce inflammation and improve gut barrier function.
  2. Reduced Inflammation: Whole foods, especially those rich in omega-3 fatty acids (like fatty fish) and antioxidants (found in fruits, vegetables, nuts, and seeds), can help reduce inflammation.
  3. Better Nutrient Intake: Natural whole foods provide essential nutrients that can support overall health and potentially improve symptoms of Crohn’s disease. Deficiencies in certain nutrients, such as vitamin D and iron, have been linked to worse symptoms in IBD patients.
  4. Weight Management: Whole foods, low in sugar and carbs, can support healthy weight management. Obesity can exacerbate inflammation and complicate Crohn’s symptoms.
  5. Reduced Gut Permeability: Some studies suggest that a diet high in processed foods can increase gut permeability (often referred to as “leaky gut”), which might exacerbate IBD. A diet based on whole foods might help in maintaining a healthy gut barrier.

It’s important to emphasize that while diet can play a role in managing symptoms of Crohn’s disease, it is not a standalone treatment. Individuals with Crohn’s should work with a healthcare professional, preferably a gastroenterologist and a registered dietitian, to devise a comprehensive management plan.

Furthermore, what works for one person might not work for another due to the heterogeneous nature of Crohn’s disease. Some people with Crohn’s might benefit from specific dietary approaches such as the Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD) or a low-FODMAP diet, while others may not. Individual assessment is crucial.

Here is a Shopping List of foods that you may find Crohn’s friendly..

Keep in mind that individual tolerances can vary greatly among people with Crohn’s disease, and what works for one person might not work for another. However, based on the general dietary recommendations for many with Crohn’s, here’s a basic shopping list:


  1. Lean meats: Chicken, turkey, lean cuts of beef or pork.
  2. Fish: Especially omega-3-rich fish like salmon, mackerel, sardines, and trout.
  3. Eggs: Whole eggs or egg whites.
  4. Tofu or tempeh: Great vegetarian protein sources, but monitor for any soy sensitivities.


  1. White rice: Easier to digest than brown rice during flares.
  2. Oats: Good for porridge; however, ensure it doesn’t exacerbate symptoms.
  3. Gluten-free bread and pasta: For those sensitive to gluten.

Dairy or Dairy Alternatives:

  1. Lactose-free milk or non-dairy milks: Such as almond, rice, or oat milk.
  2. Lactose-free yogurt: Can be beneficial for its probiotics.
  3. Hard cheeses: Often lower in lactose, like cheddar or Swiss.


  1. Bananas: Especially when ripe, as they can be easier on the digestive system.
  2. Applesauce or cooked apples: Less fiber than raw apples.
  3. Melons: Like cantaloupe and honeydew.
  4. Peeled peaches or pears: Avoiding the skin can help reduce fiber intake.


  1. Steamed carrots or green beans: Cooking well can reduce fiber and make them easier to digest.
  2. Potatoes: Preferably peeled, and can be mashed, boiled, or baked.
  3. Squash: Like butternut or acorn, cooked well.
  4. Zucchini: Especially when cooked and peeled.


  1. Olive oil and olives.
  2. Avocado: A gentle and nutrient-rich source of fats.
  3. Butter: In moderation.


  1. Water: Stay hydrated, always.
  2. Herbal teas: Such as chamomile or peppermint, which can be soothing.
  3. Bone broth: This can be soothing and provides some essential nutrients.

Supplements (consult with a healthcare provider):

  1. Multivitamin: To ensure you’re getting a range of nutrients.
  2. Iron supplement: If you’re anemic.
  3. Vitamin B12, D, and folic acid supplements: As required.
  4. Calcium supplement: Especially if you’re limiting dairy.
  5. Probiotics: Some people find they help balance gut bacteria.


  1. Natural nut butters: Like almond or peanut butter, ensuring there’s no added sugar or harmful fats.
  2. Honey or maple syrup: In moderation, as a natural sweetener.

Always remember to:

  • Check labels to avoid hidden sources of sugars, unhealthy fats, or other potential triggers.
  • Introduce one new food at a time to monitor how your body reacts.
  • Work with a dietitian or healthcare provider to ensure the diet meets your nutritional needs.

This list serves as a basic guideline, and individual needs and reactions to foods might differ. It’s important to communicate with a healthcare provider about dietary choices.

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